Ozone therapy has been advo- were thought present order 100 mcg albuterol with mastercard asthma definition kingdom, having minimal equivalency cated by alternative healers buy generic albuterol 100 mcg online asthma definition keen, as has intravenous to anatomic deﬁnitions used in Western medicine order 100mcg albuterol amex asthma treatment ultra. Therapies involving bee pollen Body function was described in theories of energy (and other products from bees) are in widespread ﬂow buy generic albuterol 100 mcg line asthma definition knowledge, or ch’i quality albuterol 100mcg asthma definition ats, from one organ to another. There are now more than 100 commercial to use acupuncture, but many may not be using outlets for shark cartilage, a substance that is pro- techniques that correspond to traditional Chinese moted for cancer treatment and prevention, arthri- teaching. Most ver is said to be a “safe natural antibiotic” that “kills often, acupuncture is used for acute or chronic pain 650 disease causing organisms. Endorphin release, with hundreds of alternative medicine home pages stimulation of the peripheral nervous system, and and links to mail order ﬁrms. Proponents tecting investigators from fraud and licensing from different traditions (i. Chinese) actions, raids, seizure of materials, import alerts, often disagree as to the “correct” location of 196 The Encyclopedia of Complementary and Alternative Medicine acupuncture points for treating a given condition. Critics contend ously, advances in medical education, scientiﬁc that acupuncturists, including many traditionally theory, and pressure from organized medicine led trained physicians, merely stick needles in patients to the decline of homeopathy. Homeopathy Today, homeopathy is practiced mostly by per- Homeopathy was begun in the early 1800s by sons licensed as physicians or holding another Samuel Hahnemann (1755–1843), a traditionally license allowing the prescription of drugs. Some lay trained German physician who renounced the prac- healers use homeopathy, and homeopathic reme- tices of the day, such as bleeding and purging, tak- dies abound in health food stores and many super- ing an approach based in not inﬂicting harm. Some studied the effect of drugs of the day on the body, homeopathic healers continue the tradition of and devised a new series of rules for their testing extensive patient interviews and the use of a single and later, their application. His primary theory is substance as instructed by Hahnemann’s original the “Law of Similars”—”like cures like. This evolved into a highly structured, com- While most homeopathic remedies are not plex set of pharmacologic interventions or known to have harmed anyone (probably because “provings” with formulation and administration of of the extreme dilutions involved), the efﬁcacy of extremely dilute concentrations of substances and most homeopathic remedies has not been proven. Then, the “memory” of the original drug is car- ness of homeopathic treatments in childhood diar- ried on even when, after multiple dilutions, none of rhea. Careful attention to the total history of the diagnostic and treatment categories but combining patient was emphasized, and the use of a single them in the conclusions of efﬁcacy; and lack of homeopathic remedy for a given condition or set of chemical analysis of different treatments. The clin- complaints was taught, based on detailed observa- ical signiﬁcance of the results, given the self-limit- tions of the effects of these preparations. Speciﬁc lifestyle and dietary interventions are prescribed, as well as measures to rid the body of Naturopathy certain toxins and metabolic byproducts that are Naturopathy is a term coined by John Scheel in thought to accumulate, to the detriment of the 1895 to describe his methods of healing. Meditation, exercise, herbal oil massage, and developed set of principles and theories, naturopa- other therapy are promoted, much of which is pro- thy may have its roots in the spas of Europe that prietary and marketed commercially. About 20 schools of naturopathy were present in the United Folk Therapies States in the early 1900s. The Flexner report and Besides traditional Oriental medicine, other cul- other pressures led to its decline. It never had the tural systems within the United States use folk political and professional stature of other alterna- treatment and rely to at least some extent on self- tive methods, and until recently, education in care remedies. Some of the healers are shamanistic naturopathy was available only through schools of and blend religion with their efforts to heal, such as chiropractic. For physicians been accredited by the profession, led by Bastyr practicing in areas with signiﬁcant ethnic popula- University in Seattle.
Neuman has identiﬁed these forces as stressors and suggests that possible reactions and The Neuman Systems Model provides a comprehen- actual reactions with identiﬁable signs or symp- sive buy 100 mcg albuterol with mastercard asthma definition gina, ﬂexible buy albuterol 100 mcg fast delivery asthma 12 reversibility, holistic albuterol 100 mcg line define asthma exacerbation, and systems-based perspective toms may be mitigated through appropriate early for nursing discount 100mcg albuterol overnight delivery asthma red zone symptoms. Neuman (1995) deﬁned conceptual model concepts buy generic albuterol 100mcg on line asthma definition sign, whereas other proposi- tions state the relationships among conceptual model concepts in a general manner. In Fawcett’s Neuman (1995) deﬁned system as a perva- (1995a) analysis of the Neuman Systems Model, sive order that holds together its parts. With this deﬁnition in mind, she writes that believes that Neuman’s primary, secondary, and nursing can be readily conceptualized as a complete tertiary preventions provide the required linkages whole, with identiﬁable smaller wholes or parts. The fol- The complete whole structure is maintained by in- lowing propositions describe, deﬁne, and connect terrelationships among identiﬁable smaller wholes concepts essential to understanding the conceptual or parts through regulations that evolve out of the model that is presented in the next section of this dynamics of the open system. Although each individual client or group as a gentropy or evolution as a system absorbs energy client system is unique, each system is a com- to increase its organization, complexity, and devel- posite of common known factors or innate opment when it moves toward a steady or wellness characteristics within a normal, given range of state. An open system of energy exchange is never response contained within a basic structure. Many known, unknown, and universal envi- toward differentiation and elaboration for further ronmental stressors exist. Tertiary prevention relates to the adaptive pro- interrelationships of client variables—physio- cesses taking place as reconstitution begins and logical, psychological, sociocultural, develop- maintenance factors move the client back in a mental, and spiritual—at any point in time can circular manner toward primary prevention. The client as a system is in a dynamic, constant by the ﬂexible line of defense against possible energy exchange with the environment reaction to a single stressor or a combination of (Neuman, 1995, pp. The conceptual model was resents change over time through coping with developed to explain the client-client system as an diverse stress encounters. When the cushioning, accordion-like effect of tive relationships that exist between the client and the ﬂexible line of defense is no longer capable the caregiver in Neuman’s model. Neuman now of protecting the client-client system against an believes the model can be equally well applied to environmental stressor, the stressor breaks a group, larger community, or social issue and is ap- through the normal line of defense. The inter- propriate for nursing and other health disciplines relationships of variables—physiological, psy- (Neuman, 1995). The client, whether in a state of wellness or client system, environment, and nursing aspects of illness, is a dynamic composite of the interre- the nursing domain. Wellness is on a continuum of avail- able energy to support the system in an optimal The structure of the client-client system is illus- state of system stability. Implicit within each client system are internal sists of the ﬂexible line of defense, the normal line resistance factors know as lines of resistance, of defense, lines of resistance, and the basic struc- which function to stabilize and return the client ture energy resources (shown at the core of the to the usual wellness state (normal line of de- concentric circles in Figure 18-2). Five client vari- fense) or possibly to a higher level of stability ables—physiological, psychological, sociocultural, following an environmental stressor reaction. Primary prevention relates to general knowl- sidered simultaneously in each concentric circle edge that is applied in client assessment and that makes up the client-client system (Neuman, intervention in identiﬁcation and reduction or 1995). The goal of health Stressors must penetrate the ﬂexible line of defense promotion is included in primary prevention. Neuman described this line of de- ogy following a reaction to stressors, appropri- fense as an accordion-like mechanism that acts like ate ranking of intervention priorities, and a protective buffer system to help prevent stressor treatment to reduce their noxious effects. A holistic view of a dynamic open client-client system interacting with environmental stressors, along with client and caregiver collaborative participation in promoting an optimum state of wellness. What are the effects of short- Basic structure term loss of sleep, poor nutrition, or dehydration Basic factors common to all organisms, i. Will these sit- Normal temperature uations increase the possibility for stressor penetra- range tion? The answer is that the possibility for stressor Genetic structure Response pattern penetration may be increased.
The determinants of bacterial pathogenicity and virulence can be outlined as follows: & Adhesion to host cells (adhesins) albuterol 100mcg without a prescription asthma bronchitis natural treatment. The above bacterial pathogenicity factors are confronted by the following host defense mechanisms: & Nonspecific defenses including mechanical trusted 100 mcg albuterol asthma lesson plans, humoral order 100 mcg albuterol amex asthma emergency treatment, and cellular sys- tems discount 100 mcg albuterol mastercard asthma treatment updates. The response of these defenses to infection thus involves the correlation of a number of different mechanisms buy generic albuterol 100mcg line asthma symptoms panic attack. Primary, innate defects are rare, whereas acquired, sec- ondary immune defects occur frequently, paving the way for infections by microorganisms known as “facultative pathogens” (opportunists). The terms pathogenicity and virulence are not clearly defined in their relevance to microorganisms. It has been proposed that pathogenicity be used to characterize a particular species and that virulence be used to describe the sum of the disease-causing properties of a population (strain) of a pathogenic species (Fig. Determinants of Bacterial Pathogenicity and Virulence Relatively little is known about the factors determining the pathogenicity and virulence of microorganisms, and most of what we do know concerns the disease-causing mechanisms of bacteria. Host–Pathogen Interactions 11 Virulence, Pathogenicity, Susceptibility, Disposition 1 virulent strain avirulent type or var (e. The terms disposi- tion and resistance are used to characterize the status of individuals of a suscep- tible host species. There are five groups of potential bacterial contributors to the pathogen- esis of infectious diseases: 1. Adhesion When pathogenic bacteria come into contact with intact human surface tis- sues (e. This is a specific process, meaning that the adhesion structure (or ligand) and the receptor must fit together like a key in a keyhole. Bacteria may invade a host passively through microtraumata or macrotraumata in the skin or mucosa. On the other hand, bacteria that invade through intact mucosa first adhere to this anatomical barrier, then actively breach it. Different bacterial species deploy a variety of mechanisms to reach this end: — Production of tissue-damaging exoenzymes that destroy anatomical bar- riers. Bacteria translocated into the intracellular space by endocytosis cause actin to condense into filaments, which then array at one end of the bacterium and push up against the inner side of the cell membrane. This is followed by fusion with the membrane of the neighboring tissue cell, whereupon the bacterium enters the new cell (typical of Listeria and Shigella). Strategies against Nonspecific Immunity Establishment of a bacterial infection in a host presupposes the capacity of the invaders to overcome the host’s nonspecific immune defenses. The most important mechanisms used by pathogenic bacteria are: Kayser, Medical Microbiology © 2005 Thieme All rights reserved. Capsule components may 1 block alternative activation of complement so that C3b is lacking (ligand for C3b receptor of phagocytes) on the surface of encapsulated bacteria. Microorganisms that use this strategy include Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. A lipopolysaccharide in the outer membrane is modified in such a way that it cannot initiate alternative activation of the complement system. As a result, the membrane attack complex (C5b6789), which would otherwise lyse holes in the outer membrane, is no longer produced (see p. They complex with iron, thereby stealing this element from proteins containing iron (transferrin, lactoferrin). The intricate iron transport system is localized in the cytoplasmic membrane, and in Gram- negative bacteria in the outer membrane as well. The free availability of only about 10–20 mol/l iron in human body fluids thus presents a challenge to them. At this stage of development, the immune system is un- able to recognize bacterial immunogens as foreign.
Aim for 30 minutes to one hour of moderate intensity activity each day generic albuterol 100mcg without a prescription asthma definition nice, such as brisk walking cheap albuterol 100mcg overnight delivery asthma symptoms in 9 year old, cycling albuterol 100 mcg on-line asthma symptoms on skin, or swimming purchase albuterol 100mcg overnight delivery asthma definition symptoms. Exercise helps with weight manage- ment and also improves blood glucose control and insulin sensitivity discount albuterol 100 mcg amex asthma bronchitis definition. People with diabetes who smoke are at greater risk for heart, kidney and eye disease, and nerve damage. Brush your teeth at least twice a day and ﬂoss daily to reduce the risk of gum infection. Diabetics are prone to nerve damage, which can make sores on the feet unnoticeable and delay wound healing. Top Recommended Supplements Alpha lipoic acid: A powerful antioxidant that can help improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of diabetic complications such as neuropathy and nephropathy (kidney dis- ease). Some studies have found that diabetics are deﬁcient in chromium, and that supplements can help improve blood sugar management. Studies involving ﬁbre supplements of psyllium, oat bran, and glucomannan have shown beneﬁts for diabet- ics. Complementary Supplements B-vitamins: Essential for proper nerve function and energy metabolism. Take a B-complex or a multivitamin that contains at least 50 mg of the B-vitamins. Fenugreek: Seeds and supplements containing this herb have been shown to lower blood sugar and improve insulin sensitivity. Fish oil: Helps improve glucose tolerance, reduce triglycerides and cholesterol levels, and may help improve diabetic complications (neuropathy and nephropathy). Gymnema: Preliminary research shows that this herb can help stimulate insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in those with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Dosage: 400 mg once or twice daily of a product standardized to 25 percent gymnemic acid. People with diabetes tend to have low magnesium levels and a deﬁciency is associated with insulin resistance. Vitamin E: Helps to improve glucose tolerance and reduce glycosylation (binding of sugar to proteins in blood vessels). Many studies have found that it can prevent and reverse nerve damage and help protect against retinopathy and nephropathy. Eat small, frequent meals with low-glycemic, high-ﬁbre carbohydrates, protein, and healthy fats. Maintain good oral and foot hygiene and see your doctor regularly for checkups and blood glucose testing. Diarrhea is considered acute if it lasts just a few days or chronic if it persists for more than four weeks. During digestion, the food we eat is broken down and nutrients are absorbed through the intestine. The waste material passes through the colon where most of the ﬂuids are absorbed, creating a soft stool. The body secretes extra ﬂuid and intestinal contrac- tions propel the toxins out of the body. When diarrhea occurs, the food and ﬂuids D you eat pass quickly through the colon so that the ﬂuids are not adequately absorbed, causing soft, watery stools.
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